Arguments, Premises And Conclusions . Reading Assignment: 1.1 (pp. 1-7) Click here to bypass the following discussion and go straight to the assignments. Logic is the science that evaluates arguments. An argument is a group of statements including one or more premises and one and only one conclusion. Is validity a necessary condition for a good argument? Certainly many good arguments are valid. Example: All whales are mammals. All mammals are warm-blooded. So all whales are warm-blooded. But it is not true that good arguments must be valid. We often accept arguments as good, even though they are not valid. Example: Now we will be introducing new symbols so that we can simplify statements and arguments. As the chapter shows, we will be using: ~--> 'not' Obama will not be president in 2016, ~O •--> 'and' Pua and Kanoe are Native Hawaiians. P • K. v = 'or' George or Chelsea will be at the meeting tomorrow. G v C ⊃--> 'if, then' Single-perspective argument, with one person arguing to convince a mass audience. One-on-one everyday argument, with one person trying to convince another. Academic inquiry, with one or more people examining a complicated issue. Negotiation, with two or more people working to reach consensus. Internal argument, or working to convince yourself. Causal arguments usually appear in explanations. An example of a causal argument is a scientific hypothesis that explains a natural event e.g.. lower global temperatures result from increased volcanic activity. Quite often causal arguments confuse correlation - coincidental occurrence-and causality.